Wissenschaft ermöglicht durch Exemplardaten

Hebets, E. A., M. Oviedo-Diego, F. Cargnelutti, F. Bollatti, L. Calbacho-Rosa, C. I. Mattoni, P. Olivero, et al. 2023. A scientist’s guide to Solifugae: how solifuges could advance research in ecology, evolution, and behaviour. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad174

Despite having >1200 described species and despite their nearly worldwide distribution and prevalence in many xeric ecosystems, relative to many other arachnid groups, we know little about the natural history and behaviour of animals in the order Solifugae (camel spiders, sun spiders, sun scorpions, etc.). Here, we review the current solifuge literature through the lens of conceptual research areas in ecology, evolution, and behaviour and propose ways in which solifuges can contribute to research in specific subfields, as follows: (i) ecology: community and trophic dynamics; connecting food webs; habitat specialization; and biodiversity and conservation; (ii) evolution: speciation and diversification; activity cycles and associated traits; adaptations for speed; and living in extreme environments; and (iii) behaviour and sensory systems: sleep, quiescence, and diapause; sensory systems and sensory ecology; learning and cognition; and mating systems, sexual selection, and sexual conflict. This resource can provide a starting point for identifying research programmes that will simultaneously contribute basic natural history information about this under-studied group and provide a broader understanding of fundamental concepts and theories across the life sciences. We hope that scientists will take this review as a challenge to develop creative ways of leveraging the unique features of solifuges to advance scientific knowledge and understanding.

Feuerborn, C., G. Quinlan, R. Shippee, T. L. Strausser, T. Terranova, C. M. Grozinger, and H. M. Hines. 2023. Variance in heat tolerance in bumble bees correlates with species geographic range and is associated with several environmental and biological factors. Ecology and Evolution 13. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.10730

Globally, insects have been impacted by climate change, with bumble bees in particular showing range shifts and declining species diversity with global warming. This suggests heat tolerance is a likely factor limiting the distribution and success of these bees. Studies have shown high intraspecific variance in bumble bee thermal tolerance, suggesting biological and environmental factors may be impacting heat resilience. Understanding these factors is important for assessing vulnerability and finding environmental solutions to mitigate effects of climate change. In this study, we assess whether geographic range variation in bumble bees in the eastern United States is associated with heat tolerance and further dissect which other biological and environmental factors explain variation in heat sensitivity in these bees. We examine heat tolerance by caste, sex, and rearing condition (wild/lab) across six eastern US bumble bee species, and assess the role of age, reproductive status, body size, and interactive effects of humidity and temperature on thermal tolerance in Bombus impatiens. We found marked differences in heat tolerance by species that correlate with each species' latitudinal range, habitat, and climatic niche, and we found significant variation in thermal sensitivity by caste and sex. Queens had considerably lower heat tolerance than workers and males, with greater tolerance when queens would first be leaving their natal nest, and lower tolerance after ovary activation. Wild bees tended to have higher heat tolerance than lab reared bees, and body size was associated with heat tolerance only in wild‐caught foragers. Humidity showed a strong interaction with heat effects, pointing to the need to regulate relative humidity in thermal assays and consider its role in nature. Altogether, we found most tested biological conditions impact thermal tolerance and highlight the stages of these bees that will be most sensitive to future climate change.

García-Navarrete, P. G., L. A. Sánchez-González, and J. J. Morrone. 2023. Biogeographical affinities of the biota of the Tres Marías Islands, Mexico. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blad101

The Tres Marías archipelago in the central Mexican Pacific is a protected area that has a complex geological history due to its tectonic setting. This study describes an integrative analysis of the biogeographical affinities of the biota inhabiting the islands. A biotic component analysis showed a close relationship between the islands and the Pacific Lowlands and Veracruzan biogeographical provinces, whereas a cladistic biogeographical analysis additionally showed a Nearctic affinity with the Sonoran biogeographical province. The biogeographical affinity patterns, based on the distribution of the sister group of each endemic species, revealed three distinct patterns: Neotropical, Sonoran-Neotropical and Nearctic-Neotropical. The study recognized that the Tres Marías Islands are a region of great biological complexity where the biota of the Pacific Lowlands and the Veracruzan provinces intersect, with a predominantly Neotropical affinity. In this biogeographical analysis, information on the biotic assemblage and the geological history of the Tres Marías Islands are integrated and discussed. The biotic assembly of the islands must have occurred via both vicariance and dispersal at different geological times, related to opening of the Gulf of California (Miocene–Pleistocene) as well as to periods of glaciation (Pleistocene).

Kolanowska, M. 2023. Future distribution of the epiphytic leafless orchid (Dendrophylax lindenii), its pollinators and phorophytes evaluated using niche modelling and three different climate change projections. Scientific Reports 13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-42573-5

The identification of future refugia for endangered species from the effects of global warming is crucial for improving their conservation. Because climate-driven shifts in ranges and local extinctions can result in a spatial mismatch with their symbiotic organisms, however, it is important to incorporate in niche modelling the ecological partners of the species studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on the distribution of suitable niches for the ghost orchid ( Dendrophylax lindenii ) and its phorophytes and pollinators. Thus, its five species of host trees and three pollen vectors were included in the analysis. Climatic preferences of all the species studied were evaluated. The modelling was based on three different climate change projections and four Shared Socio-economic Pathway trajectories. All the species analysed are characterized by narrow temperature tolerances, which with global warming are likely to result in local extinctions and range shifts. D. lindenii is likely to be subjected to a significant loss of suitable niches, but within a reduced geographical range, both host trees and pollen vectors will be available in the future. Future conservation of this orchid should focus on areas that are likely be suitable for it and its ecological partners.

Kopsco, H. L., P. Gronemeyer, N. Mateus-Pinilla, and R. L. Smith. 2023. Current and Future Habitat Suitability Models for Four Ticks of Medical Concern in Illinois, USA. Insects 14: 213. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030213

The greater U.S. Midwest is on the leading edge of tick and tick-borne disease (TBD) expansion, with tick and TBD encroachment into Illinois occurring from both the northern and the southern regions. To assess the historical and future habitat suitability of four ticks of medical concern within the state, we fit individual and mean-weighted ensemble species distribution models for Ixodes scapularis, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and a newly invading species, Amblyomma maculatum using a variety of landscape and mean climate variables for the periods of 1970–2000, 2041–2060, and 2061–2080. Ensemble model projections for the historical climate were consistent with known distributions of each species but predicted the habitat suitability of A. maculatum to be much greater throughout Illinois than what known distributions demonstrate. The presence of forests and wetlands were the most important landcover classes predicting the occurrence of all tick species. As the climate warmed, the expected distribution of all species became strongly responsive to precipitation and temperature variables, particularly precipitation of the warmest quarter and mean diurnal range, as well as proximity to forest cover and water sources. The suitable habitat for I. scapularis, A. americanum, and A. maculatum was predicted to significantly narrow in the 2050 climate scenario and then increase more broadly statewide in the 2070 scenario but at reduced likelihoods. Predicting where ticks may invade and concentrate as the climate changes will be important to anticipate, prevent, and treat TBD in Illinois.

Grigoropoulou, A., S. A. Hamid, R. Acosta, E. O. Akindele, S. A. Al‐Shami, F. Altermatt, G. Amatulli, et al. 2023. The global EPTO database: Worldwide occurrences of aquatic insects. Global Ecology and Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13648

Motivation Aquatic insects comprise 64% of freshwater animal diversity and are widely used as bioindicators to assess water quality impairment and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as to test ecological hypotheses. Despite their importance, a comprehensive, global database of aquatic insect occurrences for mapping freshwater biodiversity in macroecological studies and applied freshwater research is missing. We aim to fill this gap and present the Global EPTO Database, which includes worldwide geo-referenced aquatic insect occurrence records for four major taxa groups: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata (EPTO). Main type of variables contained A total of 8,368,467 occurrence records globally, of which 8,319,689 (99%) are publicly available. The records are attributed to the corresponding drainage basin and sub-catchment based on the Hydrography90m dataset and are accompanied by the elevation value, the freshwater ecoregion and the protection status of their location. Spatial location and grain The database covers the global extent, with 86% of the observation records having coordinates with at least four decimal digits (11.1 m precision at the equator) in the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) coordinate reference system. Time period and grain Sampling years span from 1951 to 2021. Ninety-nine percent of the records have information on the year of the observation, 95% on the year and month, while 94% have a complete date. In the case of seven sub-datasets, exact dates can be retrieved upon communication with the data contributors. Major taxa and level of measurement Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata, standardized at the genus taxonomic level. We provide species names for 7,727,980 (93%) records without further taxonomic verification. Software format The entire tab-separated value (.csv) database can be downloaded and visualized at https://glowabio.org/project/epto_database/. Fifty individual datasets are also available at https://fred.igb-berlin.de, while six datasets have restricted access. For the latter, we share metadata and the contact details of the authors.

LIZARDO, V., V. MOCTEZUMA, and F. ESCOBAR. 2022. Distribution, Regionalization, and Diversity of the dung beetle genus Phanaeus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) using Species Distribution Models. Zootaxa 5213: 546–568. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5213.5.4

The genus Phanaeus is a well-known group whose taxonomy has been described multiple times. Its distribution was previously classified into 11 ecogeographic groups that are equivalent to areas of endemism. Here we use Species Distribution Models to describe species richness patterns. We measured beta-diversity and regionalized its distribution into one region and one transition zone, both with three dominions: Mexican Transition Zone (North American, Mexican, and Mesoamerican dominions) and Neotropical region (Pacific, Brazilian, and Atlantic Forest dominions). We also present a species checklist and updated the distribution maps for 73 of 81 species described so far that reflects all the taxonomical updates. We include a list of all the recorded locations (by country, state, and province), list the recorded habitats and biomes, and describe the modelled environmental conditions for each species.

Liu, S., S. Xia, D. Wu, J. E. Behm, Y. Meng, H. Yuan, P. Wen, et al. 2022. Understanding global and regional patterns of termite diversity and regional functional traits. iScience: 105538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.105538

Our understanding of broad-scale biodiversity and functional trait patterns is largely based on plants, and relatively little information is available on soil arthropods. Here, we investigated the distribution of termite diversity globally and morphological traits and diversity across China. Our analyses showed increasing termite species richness with decreasing latitude at both the globally, and within-China. Additionally, we detected obvious latitudinal trends in the mean community value of termite morphological traits on average, with body size and leg length decreasing with increasing latitude. Furthermore, temperature, NDVI and water variables were the most important drivers controlling the variation in termite richness, and temperature and soil properties were key drivers of the geographic distribution of termite morphological traits. Our global termite richness map is one of the first high resolution maps for any arthropod group and especially given the functional importance of termites, our work provides a useful baseline for further ecological analysis.

Montañez-Reyna, M., J. L. León-Cortés, F. Infante, E. J. Naranjo, and A. Gómez-Velasco. 2022. Diversity and Climatic Distribution of Moths in the Tribe Arctiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) in Mexico P. Shi [ed.],. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 115: 253–266. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/saac002

Abstract The Mexican lepidopteran fauna is particularly diverse, but many moth groups remain poorly documented. The tribe Arctiini is a species-rich group that has been used as a reliable indicator of environmental change. However, little is known about the fauna of the tribe Arctiini in Mexico, and there is no exhaustive review of its diversity and distribution patterns. Our aims were: 1) to account for the species diversity and distribution patterns of the tribe Arctiini; 2) to build spatial distributions and discuss possible changes in the distribution areas of the tribe Arctiini using conservative (RCP 2.6) and liberal (RCP 8.5) future climate scenarios; and 3) to discuss the conservation implications for key taxa that due to their life history characteristics and restricted distribution, might require particular conservation actions. We compiled a total of 16,385 records and 548 species in seven subtribes. Diversity profiles revealed higher cumulative species richness and diversity for the subtribes Phaegopterina, Ctenuchina, and Euchromiina, and we identified a pattern of decreasing species diversity with elevation. In addition, we estimated that 35% and 84% of modeled species in future conservative and liberal climatic scenarios, respectively, would result in significant losses of climatic suitability and shifts in spatial distribution. The endemic species, Virbia semirosea, Poliopastea jalapensis, and Pygoctenucha azteca would likely reduce their distribution by approximately 50% in both climatic scenarios. Maintaining a network of highly threatened habitats (e.g., cloud forests, tropical rain forests) will be essential to preserve persisting species populations and to increase likely (re)colonization events.

Marshall, B. M., C. T. Strine, C. S. Fukushima, P. Cardoso, M. C. Orr, and A. C. Hughes. 2022. Searching the web builds fuller picture of arachnid trade. Communications Biology 5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03374-0

Wildlife trade is a major driver of biodiversity loss, yet whilst the impacts of trade in some species are relatively well-known, some taxa, such as many invertebrates are often overlooked. Here we explore global patterns of trade in the arachnids, and detected 1,264 species from 66 families and 371 genera in trade. Trade in these groups exceeds millions of individuals, with 67% coming directly from the wild, and up to 99% of individuals in some genera. For popular taxa, such as tarantulas up to 50% are in trade, including 25% of species described since 2000. CITES only covers 30 (2%) of the species potentially traded. We mapped the percentage and number of species native to each country in trade. To enable sustainable trade, better data on species distributions and better conservation status assessments are needed. The disparity between trade data sources highlights the need to expand monitoring if impacts on wild populations are to be accurately gauged and the impacts of trade minimised. Trade in arachnids includes millions of individuals and over 1264 species, with over 70% of individuals coming from the wild.